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Intervention model of  yoga in the psychology of counterproductive behavior at work



Counterproductive work behavior ( CCW ) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of workplace behaviors, as well as its connection to negative affectivity and hostile behaviors.  


This is a major concern for virtually all organizations. Repeated exposure to stress at work can lead to  deformation  ', a result of the process of work stress which can be psychological, physical or behavioral in nature, leading to CCT .  


Yoga is a technique that brings about mental and physical improvement through

means of postures, methods of breath control, and methods of stilling the mind through meditation. 

Although yoga has received less attention from science, there has been significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population.  


Practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware of their aggressive thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state, rather than controlling them.


The positive effects of yoga on personal development are already proven. This article presents a workplace yoga intervention trial that could result in a double benefit and substantial savings for employers, by reducing employees' CCT, improving their health by reducing their negative affect and assault.  


Every company has its goals. Counterproductive work behavior ( CCW ) is behavior by an employee that goes against these goals. CCT has been defined as any intentional behavior of a person working within a company which (behaviour) is against the real interest of this company.

It includes actions such as: sabotage, theft, absence
  effort, verbal abuse, physical aggression, direct or indirect absenteeism, and disinterest in

cooperate. Over the years, the same kind of behaviors have been studied under different names: deviance in the workplace, organizational delinquency, antisocial behavior in organizations, and aggression in the workplace.

Counterproductive actions at work have two facets: minor and severe. Minor behaviors could be: rumors, gossip, inappropriate use
  the Internet or a printer.
In the case of more serious behaviors, one could see damaged materials, harassment, violence and acts of physical harm.


According to previous studies, the personality characteristics of an individual

demonstrated an important and significant relationship with deviant behaviors at work.



Affectivity  negative and counterproductive behavior  at work ( CCT )


Negative affectivity ( NE ) is defined as the degree to which individuals experience

destructive emotional states.  If someone has a high level of AN , it could also be problematic for their colleagues.  


Research and theory on AN suggest that individuals and companies could minimize its potential harmful effects within teams and groups by identifying it, understanding it, and using this knowledge.


Positive affectivity ( PA ) is related to social interest and sociability, while AN is associated with psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, and worry.  


Emotions  different negatives produce different forms of action. For example, anger can cause people to act out (violently), while fear causes the person to run away from the situation.

A high level of AN can include feelings of anger, contempt, guilt, fear and nervousness. AN and has been suggested as a major component of depression and


AN has been shown to participate in the relationship between interpersonal conflict and CCT .

Employees with a high level of AN are more likely to become hostile, and this tendency can lead to increased conflict, anger, and stronger aggression.


There is a direct relationship between the level of AN and the CCT . Individuals with high AN levels, under high work stress, are likely to increase their CCT .


An emotional disagreement occurs when an employee attempts to express their emotion which is

restrained in this particular situation. It acts as a stressor which is associated with emotional pressure and job dissatisfaction.  


Excessive emotional demands are responsible for burnout which can further lead to other problems. AN is a bi-directional conflict contributor for work and family, it means interference between work and family.


AN has been found to indirectly affect a conflict;  the same study revealed that the more stress there is in the family, the more the individual has a high level of AN.


Additionally, with low self-control, individuals are unable to deal effectively with their frustrations. They therefore act with impulsiveness and aggression to the situations they encounter.



Yoga Intervention Model  for the reduction of counterproductive behavior at work.


Yoga is a form of mind and body that involves both muscular and mental activity, coordinated and concentrated. Yoga has many useful psychological applications. Yoga improves the quality of perception of life and at the same time decreases anxiety and depression. The yoga intervention model is specific. He explains how yoga can be a reliable solution in reducing variables such as AN , aggression, and CCT .  



The effect of hatha yoga on negative affectivity ( NE ) has also been studied in previous studies, and has been shown to lower cortisol levels, and reduce feelings of  stress and negative affectivity in general.

The most significant changes occurred during the meditation stage, by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic system.

Guided meditation is helpful in decreasing oxygen consumption and in  the increase in the volume of breathing. 

Meditation "  effortlessly  »  and meditation sessions  concentrated  help increase attention. More attention helps to reduce the number of errors.


Simpson et al. [appendix 37] found that the mindfulness gained through meditation was helpful in effectively overcoming addictions, including alcoholism. This means that deviant behavior can be controlled through yoga practice.



Employment :

Burnout affects the individual on a psychological level which leads to health problems. It also affects the operation of the business. Practicing Yoga can reduce burnout among employees, and also help them to be healthy.


It is observed that, regardless of the specific type of posture, all postures cause an increase in positive emotions by the elimination of negative emotions.

The same study found that these mood swings lasted for a few hours, and that open-back and back-twisted postures were found to be associated with positive mood .  


Yoga is very effective in reducing anxiety, which can help overcome feelings of job insecurity. [appendix 51]
Verbal aggression was also found to decrease in the yoga group noticeably compared to the physical activity group. [appendix 52]


In short, yoga provides physiological and psychological benefits, including: improved memory and attention [appendix 54]; reduces psychological distress and the level of feelings of stress, reinforcing the feeling of well-being, and increasing positivity.




Yoga acts at the psychological and physiological level, and ensures the person to be stable and in good health.  


Yoga seems to be very effective in reducing CCT - interpersonal and organizational, both by improving our attention to ourselves and our place in the collective, to the quality of life and to the reduction of interpersonal psychological problems. . 

Yoga could be a reliable tool for employees in decreasing CCT .  


This evaluation study shows that yoga interventions can be effective in treating personal psychological issues such as reducing anxiety, stress and depression, and it can promote an individual's well-being. In other words, yoga can not only help overcome psychological and emotional problems, but it has the

potential to develop positive and stable functioning in the individual.  


Yoga could be an addition to the range of psychological and physical health interventions, given its potential.

Authors: Umesh C. Dwivedi , Sony Kumari , and HR Nagendra

Translated by: Aleks PAPIN  

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